New to Linux
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  1. #1
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    Mar 2018
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    New to Linux

    Hi everyone, Im completely new to Linux but still replaced my windows 8.1 with fedora workstation 27 this month. So far it looks wonderful. I have few questions though. Ive bought a book How Linux Works to learn about Linux. Is it a good start? And why Im seeing three fedora OS while it boots up? And last question is I see few error messages when my PC boots up/ shuts down. They dont seem to affect the performance so far & there is no time to go through them. Should I be worried about them? If I take pic of them & post here on, will anyone help me? Ill be highly grateful for any help. Its a steep learning but Im motivated.
    Thanks

  2. #2
    Join Date
    Nov 2008
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    415

    Re: New to Linux

    I'm not familiar with "How Linux Works", but when I was starting out with Linux about 20 years ago, I got a copy of "A Practical Guide to Linux" and I found it a helpful reference, and even now I might refer to it now and then, even though the details are not current. The "three fedora's" are the latest three versions of the kernel. Normally you boot with the most current, unless there is a problem. There are always some error messages in the boot process, and the majority are not significant. Some errors are corrected by other processes later in the boot sequence; if your system is working OK, the other errors can probably be ignored. You can post a pic here, and maybe someone can help, maybe not. It might be better (more legible) to capture in a file selected output from "dmesg" and/or "journalctl -xb" and post that file.

  3. #3
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    Re: New to Linux

    Thanks so much for the answer. // I'm not familiar with "How Linux Works" // https://www.amazon.com/How-Linux-Wor.../dp/1593270356 is the book that I just got to get myself familiar with linux. I will also have a look at "A Practical Guide to Linux". That is nice to see is one OS stops working or malfunctions there is/are back OSs but doesn't it take more memory? Also nice to hear I can ignore those boot up / shut down messages as long as my fedora is working fine. I have no idea what // to capture in a file selected output from "dmesg" and/or "journalctl -xb" and post that file. // means since I have only finished one chapter from the book but definitely this forum is giving me tons of info and I am pretty sure windows is out of window as far as I am concerned.

  4. #4
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    Nov 2008
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    Re: New to Linux

    I wasn't recommending "A Practical Guide to Linux" - it was published 20 years ago, and while it was useful to me, you would want something more current. I was just saying that I thought getting a linux guide book was a good idea, when you're just starting with linux.

  5. #5
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    Nov 2008
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    415

    Re: New to Linux

    Quote Originally Posted by BediVikas
    ... doesn't it take more memory? ... I have no idea what // to capture in a file selected output from "dmesg" and/or "journalctl -xb" and post that file. // means ...
    It doesn't take more memory since only one kernel is running at a time (excluding a virtual machine scenario). One way to get selected lines from dmesg or journalctl into a file would be: 1) open a terminal and enter a "dmesg|less" command, or "journalctl -xb" command; 2) open an editor; 3) select the lines you want to copy using holding down the left mouse button; 4) right click on the mouse to bring up the mouse menu and select "copy"; 5) go the editor window; 6) right click on the mouse and then select "paste"; 7) end the edit session saving the file.

  6. #6
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    Re: New to Linux

    oh I see...This is what I did as you said. I didn't cut/copy/paste. I took screenshot after typing "journalctl -xb" into terminal. I can't understand any of it right now. But seems like everything is OK...lolClick image for larger version. 

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  7. #7
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    Dec 2017
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    USA
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    Re: New to Linux

    You are a brave soul, to jump completely to GNU/Linux!

    I know Fedora (because of systemd, pretty sure) has all sorts of messages displayed right before shutdown, but they really don't matter. They're usually notices about unmounting filesystems. Some systems of mine even take more than 30 seconds to shut down because it thinks it's stuck unmounting a few filesystems.

    Now about your screenshot, the bottom line shows the line numbers currently on the screen. The pager (application that shows text in pages, so that you can scroll up and down) is showing that. You can use arrow keys, and depending on the value of environment variable $PAGER (probably PAGER=less or PAGER=more) you would have emacs- or vi-style keybindings so J/K could work for down/up. For page-up/page-down, try B/F. If you want all the information just dumped entirely to standard out, add the "--no-pager" flag, or just pipe it to cat:

    Code:
    journalctl -xb | cat
    In your current screenshot it shows these various services came up fine. There's probably more interesting content farther down. But as you said, it's not affecting anything so while we can help explain what you are seeing so you can learn, there probably aren't any major problems to troubleshoot which is where you learn the most.

  8. #8
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    Re: New to Linux

    Note that you don't actually need to start up and shut down. Linux servers can remain running for years on end, without ever rebooting.

    To save power when a machine is not is use, with a desktop machine, you can use hibernate and with a laptop you can use suspend. (A desktop machine doesn't have a battery, so it cannot suspend to RAM unless it remains powered up, which kinda defeats the whole idea).

    With hibernate/suspend, the machine will wake up and be ready to use in the blink of an eye.
    --
    Have fun!
    http://www.aeronetworks.ca

  9. #9
    Join Date
    Nov 2004
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    Re: New to Linux

    While I agree with servers 'running for years' . My home server only gets rebooted maybe once a year for a kernel update. I had a work RedHat 7 file server box that was up for several years when updates were no longer available for it... It just ran and ran. I tend to always shut down the boxes that aren't always in use rather than hibernate/suspend. Machines come up so fast now (once you get past the bios wait), I don't waste time with hibernate/suspend (with its quirks). My Dell laptop has an SSD, and it just boots Linux 'Mint Cinnamon' in blink of the eye. My new Ryzen desktop boots LUbuntu even quicker . SSDs sure make a difference (I think the biggest difference in boot time).

    I found 'A Practical Guide to Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux' to be a good book on Linux and Fedora in particular. I think the latest edition is 7.
    Last edited by rclark; 7th March 2018 at 07:11 PM.

  10. #10
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    Montreal, Que, Canada
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    Re: New to Linux

    To answer your question about three linux lines, here goes.
    When you first install Fedora or usually any Linux, you get two Linux versions
    One is your day-to-day version. Grub2, the boot mgr shows the kernel that was installed
    The other is an emergency recover version

    Over time, there will be kernel updates (new kernel versions). The entire kernel has to be replaced.
    The decision is to make the top kernel as the replacement, the previous version becomes the backup, and the rescue version is left alone.

    Fedora has written code so that you have one backup and one rescue.
    Installing the next kernel after successful installation removes the third one, making 2 plus 1.
    Those are what you see when you boot/reboot
    Leslie in Montreal

    Interesting web sites list
    http://forums.fedoraforum.org/showth...40#post1697840

  11. #11
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    Re: New to Linux

    I agree that machines can boot up rather quickly nowadays if you have a SSD, but it is still not anything like an old Commodore 64 or Apple II: Click, beep!

    One gets the same effect when using suspend, so I can sit down at my laptop machine, open the lid, type my password and start working, without any delay and I prefer my desktop machines to be similar - hit escape and go. Maybe once in 3 to 6 months something goes wrong/battery goes flat and I have to boot afresh.

    At work, before the other drones can install their early morning round of 200 Windows patches and convince Outlook to start up, I already read and sent half a hundred emails from my Engineering machine.
    --
    Have fun!
    http://www.aeronetworks.ca

  12. #12
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    Re: New to Linux

    Quote Originally Posted by flyingdutchman
    Note that you don't actually need to start up and shut down. Linux servers can remain running for years on end, without ever rebooting.
    While they can remain running for years it is not good practice if they are exposed to the internet in any way. There would be a lot of kernel security patches over a period of years. We have just had several rounds of patches addressing the Meltdown and Spectre issues. There was talk a while back about how it would eventually be possible to do kernel updates on the fly. I haven't heard more on that lately.

  13. #13
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    Re: New to Linux

    it seems to differ across operating systems how online kernel updates are implemented. none look like they do it as standard and I'm not sure they ever will, presumably because ultimately users should knowingly opt into such a configuration. It seems okay for LTS for server usage where you'd stay with one kernel branch for the lifecycle of the OS, I'm not sure how much use it would actually be with rolling or shorter release cycle operating systems though.

  14. #14
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    Re: New to Linux

    It is true that a reboot is sometimes needed for a kernel update, but most modules can be reloaded on the fly. I twice left a RedHat mail and web server on the wild wild web with zero(!) updates and no reboots. After more than four years of trouble free operation and gajillions of spams filtered, the PSUs eventually blew up. That is only two data points, but if you search you'll find many similar stories. So one could treat a server like an embedded system and just leave it alone until it fails and then chuck it away and get a new one. Chances are that your maintenance cost will be minimal.
    --
    Have fun!
    http://www.aeronetworks.ca

  15. #15
    Join Date
    Mar 2018
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    USA
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    Re: New to Linux

    That was indeed very useful info here. Here is another thing that bothers me. I am trying to use the dropbox. The folder shows in the home dir and there is icon too for it. The dropbox folder is checked green so I think it's working but the dropbox icon when clicked does nothing. And this is the message I keep getting whenever I do "dnf update". I did everything possible a new to linux guy can. Uninstalled, reinstalled, tried to find all the packages, repos...etc. Any help? Here is screenshot.Click image for larger version. 

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    Bedi Vikas

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