In all cases, post-install work is needed to get Fedora 16 to boot on Apple hardware.
Apple hardware has firmware based on Intel EFI 1.10, and is in effect a proprietary implementation, and not the same thing as UEFI 2.x. Officially only UEFI 2.x hardware is supported by Fedora and Windows. Despite this, some people are getting certain Apple hardware models to boot strictly with (U)EFI and in that case GPT only disks are OK. But the way the default bootloader is installed doesn't work and you still get a flashing question mark. By default the bootloader is installed on the EFI System partition, /EFI/redhat/grub.efi and grub.conf. This is GRUB legacy EFI.
From my limited experience with a MacBookPro 4,1 (2008) and MacBookPro 8,2 (2011), booting either does not work (kernel panic, initramfs corruption, VBIOS corruption) or works intermittently. It would require way more experience than I presently have to fix this and thus far haven't found any reliable workarounds or recipes for a workaround that allows me to do EFI boot and startup to a GUI.
See bug 765954
See bug 751147
The next option is that most of Apple's hardware (except servers) come with a CSM, a compatibility support module, that bridges EFI to BIOS. This CSM-BIOS mode boot is only activated in certain instances because it was only designed by Apple to work with Windows. But if you meet the requirements, you can get Fedora 16 to use CSM-BIOS mode and things generally work pretty well with some limitations, most notably the lack of good power management. So laptops tend to have pretty poor battery life. This same problem happens with Windows.
See Bug 746901
If you're going to do this with only Fedora 16, one possible easy way out of this without any postinstall work is to pass the 'nogpt' kernel parameter at the installer boot menu. This works for either LiveCD or DVD installations. This forces the creation of an MBR instead of GPT.
There is a consequence to no GPT, and no Mac OS X, however I can't qualify the scope of the consequence. The Firmware.scap file
will not be present on such a system, but I don't know what this Firmware.scap file does. I don't know if it's CSM-BIOS related or EFI related.