I'm sorry. I read the last part where your live CD asked for the password and atrributed it to the first part where you said it did not. If it asked for the password that would mean it had booted to that point. But since it did not, it sound like it got some corruption in the boot sequence. That should not be encrypted. You should be able to edit your boot sequence with your live CD or your installation disk.
Do you by chance have a backup of your master boot record ?
I would suggest you create a backup of your MBR, as it exist, as soon as possible. You can edit it, then past the edited and possibly fiexed version back in, in case that was what went wrong.
To backup your MBR go to a terminal with your live CD and enter:
dd if=/def/sda of=MyMBR bs=512 count=1