I wouldn't expect your USB card to show up in that output. I assume you are no longer trying with the Linksys PCMCIA that is in the title of the thread as that doesn't show up either.
The good news is that your onboard wireless card is identified as:
03:00.0 Network controller: Broadcom Corporation BCM4318 [AirForce One 54g] 802.11g Wireless LAN Controller (rev 02)
and that is usually one of the easiest to get going.
Download this file and put it into a directory somewhere:
Acquire full root rights over your machine with this command in a terminal window:
That's a space and a minus sign after the su. It gives you full root rights over your machine rather than just root rights over your ordinary users environment without it.
Use the cd command to navigate into the directory where you downloaded the above file. Issue the command:
That unpacks the file archive you downloaded and will create you a new directory where you are working called 'broadcom-wl-188.8.131.52'.
tar xjf broadcom-wl-184.108.40.206.tar.bz2
cd into that and then the 'driver' directory within that and use the command:
That cuts the required firmware for your card from the downloaded file and places it in the correct place for the b43 driver to find it.
b43-fwcutter -w /lib/firmware wl_apsta_mimo.o
Restart the machine and left clicking on the NetworkManager icon in the system tray of either Gnome or KDE should bring up a list of wireless access points to connect to.
Left click on one of those
Post back with any questions or problems.