Generally patches in free/open-source software are a list of changes to the source code to be applied by the patch
program. You'd need to download the source code of the software package to be patched, apply the patch, then compile the package and install it. You'd also need a compiler installed, and various other developer tools.
It's not a trivial process if you're new to Linux, so you'd be better off if you can find a pre-patched RPM to install instead.